शहरी आबादी में पोषण सुरक्षा के लिए किचन गार्डन

Vegetable crops can be grown in kitchen gardening in vary limited space of the residential area to meet the daily requirements of vegetables of a family all the year round. It ensures a healthy diet containing macro, micro nutrients, vitamins and bioactive compounds by producing diverse kind of vegetables.

The fast food in city areas has evolved with the changing lifestyles of the young Indian population. This fast food contributes little or no nutrient value to the diet, but instead provides excess calories and fat which affects health and resulting in obesity, loss of appetite, peptic ulcer, etc.

Vegetables play an important role to make our food palatable, easily digestible, balanced and nutritive. Vegetables grown inkitchen garden are fresh, safe, rich in nutrient and energy and superior in taste and quality in comparison to vegetables available in market for consumption.

Kitchen garden for ensuring nutritional security

The demand of nutritious vegetables is met by kitchen gardenwhich not only improves availability of quality vegetables but also add diversity to diet, chemical free vegetables.

  • It made the availability of fresh and safe vegetablesall the year round.
  • Efficient and effective use of land for growing of vegetables for throughout the year.
  • Efficient utilization of kitchen waste and water to produce compost
  • It is an excellent hobby and healthy occupation in spare time for the young and agedand a healthy recreation to the mind.
  • It helps in reducing vegetable bills as there are no transport charges, middlemen’s share

Vegetables are excellent source of different vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.The source of different nutrients and phytochemicals and their health benefits of different vegetable crops given in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 1: Nutritional value of important vegetables suitable for kitchen gardening

Vegetables crops

Moisture (g)

Protein (g)

Energy (Kcal)

Calcium (mg)

Phosphorus (mg)

Iron (mg)

Carotene (mcg)

Vitamin C (mg)

Vegetable Legumes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cowpea

13.4

24.1

323

77

414

8.6

12

0

Garden Pea

72.9

7.2

93

20

139

1.5

83

9

Broad beans

85.4

4.5

7.2

50

64

1.4

9

12

Cluster beans

81

3.2

10.8

130

57

1.08

198

49

Cowpea pods

85.3

3.5

48

72

59

2.5

564

14

French beans

91.4

1.7

26

50

28

0.61

132

24

Sword bean

87.2

2.7

44

60

40

2

24

12

Leafy vegetables

Chenopod leaves

89.6

3.7

30

150

80

4.2

1740

35

Beet leaf

86.4

3.4

46

380

30

16.2

5862

70

Coriander leaves

86.3

3.3

44

184

71

1.42

6918

135

Curry leaves

63.8

6.1

108

830

57

0.93

7560

4

Drumstick leaves

75.9

6.7

92

440

70

0.85

6780

220

Fenugreek leaves

86.1

4.4

49

395

51

1.93

2340

52

Lettuce

93.4

2.1

21

50

28

2.4

990

10

Mint

84.9

4.8

48

200

62

15.6

1620

27

Mustard leaves

89.8

4

34

155

26

16.3

2622

33

Spinach

92.1

2

26

73

21

1.14

5580

28

Cole vegetables

Cauliflower

90.8

2.6

4

33

57

1.23

30

56

Cabbage

91.9

1.8

27

39

44

0.8

120

124

Brussels sprouts

85.5

4.7

52

43

82

1.8

126

72

Knol-Khol

92.7

1.1

21

20

35

1.54

21

85

Broccoli

89.9

3.3

37

80

79

0.8

3500

137

Roots, Tubers and bulbs

Beet root

87.7

1.7

43

18.3

55

1.19

0

10

Carrot

86

0.9

48

80

530

1.03

1890

3

Colocasia

73.1

3

97

40

140

0.42

24

0

Onion (big)

86.6

1.2

50

46.9

50

0.6

0

11

Onion (small)

84.3

1.8

59

40

60

1.2

15

2

Potato

74.7

1.6

97

10

40

0.48

24

17

Radish pink

90.8

0.6

32

50

20

0.37

3

17

Radish white

94.4

0.7

17

35

22

0.4

3

15

Sweet potato

68.5

1.2

120

46

50

0.21

6

24

Turnip

91.6

0.5

29

30

40

0.4

0

43

Yam

69.9

1.4

111

35

20

1.19

78

0

Cucurbitaceous vegetables

Cucumber

96.3

0.4

13

10

25

0.6

0

7

Bottle gourd

96.1

0.2

2.5

20

10

0.46

0

0

Pumpkin (ripe)

86.0

1.4

25

10

30

0.7

2180

2

Ash gourd

96.5

0.4

10

30

20

0.8

0

1

Bitter gourd

92.4

1.6

4.2

20

70

0.61

126

88

Ridge gourd

95.2

0.5

17

18

26

0.39

33

5

Snake gourd

94.6

0.5

18

26

20

1.51

96

0

Solanaceous vegetables

Tomato (ripe)

94.0

1.2

20

48

26

0.4

302

27

Brinjal

92.7

1.4

4

18

47

0.38

74

12

Chilli

85.7

2.9

29

30

80

1.2

292

111

Sweet pepper

92.4

1.3

24

10

30

0.567

427

137

Other vegetables

Drumstick

86.9

2.5

26

30

110

0.18

110

120

Okra

89.6

1.9

35

66

56

0.35

52

13


Table 2:
Vegetables rich in phytochemicals for better health

Vegetable

Phytochemicals

Benefits

 Beans

Flavonoids (saponins)

Protect against cancer, lower cholesterol

Broccoli

Indole 3 carvinol,sulphoraphane

Protect against cancer, heart disease and stroke

Carrots

Beta-carotene

Antioxidant

Tomato

Lycopene, Vit C, Flavonoids

Protect against cancer, fight infection

Onion & Garlic

 (Allylsulfides)

Protect against certain cancers and heart disease, boost the immune system

Watermelon

Lycopene

Protect against cancer

Bitter gourd

Momordicin and Charantin

Diabetes, blood purifier, Hypertension, Dysentery, Anathematic

Radish

Isothiocyanates

Jaundice, Liver infection, Piles

Chilli

Capsaicin

Antirheumatic


Location of home garden

 Location is the most fundamental criterion for success of a kitchen garden. As most of the work is done by the family members in spare times, the location should be in the backyard nearness to the house.

As far as practicable, kitchen garden plots should be located close to the well, water tap or other source of irrigation. The closer the vegetable garden and the easier it is to reach, the more you will probably use it. It should never be located in the shady area of home which is generally not suitable for most of the vegetables.

There should be enough of sunlight for major part of the day. The garden should receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight each day. The soil should be fertile and easy to till, with just the right texture -- a loose, well-drained loam soil.

Selection of vegetables crops for kitchen garden:

Due to limitation in space, vegetables which give better yield per unit area should be selected. The cultivars should be selected according to the suitability of the region and according to the period of sowing. The crops, varieties and the season of growing in kitchen garden are given in Table 3.

Table 3: Varieties and hybrids of vegetables suitable for growing in the kitchen garden

Groups

Crop

Varieties / hybrids

Growing season

Solanaceous crops

Brinjal

PusaShyamla (long purple), Small round-PusaBindu, PusaAnkur

Kharif (June/July-Oct/Nov)

Tomato

PusaSheetal, PusaSadabahar, Pusa Hybrid-2, Pusa Hybrid-4, Pusa Hybrid-8, PusaRohini

Autumn-Winter

Chilli

PusaSadabahar

Kharif

Leafy vegetables

Amaranth

PusaLalChaulai, PusaKiran

Spring summer and Kharif

Beet leaf

All Green, PusaHarit, PusaBharati

Winter

Fenugreek

Pusa Early Bunching, PusaKasuri

Winter

Vegetable mustard

Pusa Sag 1

Winter

Cole crops

Cauliflower

PusaMeghna, PusaKartikSankar, PusaDeepali

PusaSharad, Pusa Hybrid 2,

PusaPaushja, PusaShukti,

 

Pusa Snowball K-1, Pusa Snowball Kt-25

Early-June/July-Oct/Nov

Mid early-July/August-Nov/Dec

Mid late-August/September-December/January

 

Late-October/Nov-Feb/March

 

Cabbage

Golden Acre, PusaMukta, Pusa Cabbage Hybrid-1

Winter

Broccoli

Pusa Broccoli Kts Sel-1, PalamSamridhi (green), PalamKanchan (purple heading), PalamVichitra (yellow heading)

Winter

Bulb and root crops

Onion

Pusa Red, PusaMadhvi, PusaRiddhi

Winter

Radish

PusaChetaki,

Rapid Red White Tipped, PusaMridula (breakfast radishes)

PusaJamuni (pink fleshaed), PusaGulabi Pink fleshed), PusaVidhu(white)

Mar-Sept

Oct-Nov

 

Sept-Nov

 

Carrot

Tropical- PusaVristi (red, heat tolerant);

 

PusaMeghali (orange), PusaRudhira (red), PusaAsita (black)

Temperate: PusaYamdagni (orange, temperate), PusaNayanjyoti (orange, temperate)

Kharif

 

Winter

 

Winter and Spring summer

Legumes

Cowpea

PusaSukomal

Spring summer and kharif

French bean

Bush type (Contender, PusaParvati), Pole type (Kentucky Wonder, PusaHimlata)

Autumn and spring summer

Dolichos bean

Pusa Sem-2, Pusa Sem-3

Kharif and autumn winter

Cluster bean

Pusanavbahar

Spring summer and kharif

Garden Pea

Arkel, PusaPragati, Pusa GP 17

Winter

Cucurbits

Bottle gourd

PusaSandesh (round fruit), Pusa Naveen (long fruit), Pusa Hybrid-3, PusaSantushti (pear shaped), PusaSamridhi (Long)

Spring summer and kharif

Bitter gourd

Pusa Vishesh, Pusa Do Mousami, Pusa Hybrid 1, 2

Spring summer

Pumpkin

PusaVikas, PusaViswas, Pusa Hybrid 1

Spring summer

Sponge gourd

PusaSneha

Spring summer and kharif

Ridge gourd

PusaNutan

Spring summer and kharif

Cucumber

PusaUuday, PusaBarkha

Spring summer and kharif

Exotic vegetables

Leek

PalamPaustik

Winter

Celery

Ford Hook Emperor

Winter

Lettuce

Great Lakes, Chinese Yellow

Winter

Parsley

Moss Curled

Winter

Kale

Pusa Selection

Winter

Brussels Sprout

Hilds Ideal

Winter

Cherry tomato

Pusa selection 1

Autumn winter

Other vegetables

Bhindi

Pusa A-4, PusaSwany

Spring summer and kharif

Bunching onion

PusaSoumya

All the year round

Drumstick

CO-1, Co-2

-


Growing of mushrooms in kitchen garden

Mushrooms are a healthy addition to any diet, as they are low in calories and fat, high in fiber, and contain high amounts of potassium. In addition, they are very easy to grow at home. Mushrooms are best grown indoors where the temperature and light conditions can be more readily managed.

Mushroom prefer dark, cool, moist and humid growing environment. In a house, a basement or spot under the sink may be ideal. For growing mushroom at home one may have a couple options for materials i.e. one can buy mushroom kits already packed with a growing medium that is inoculated with spawn.

Use 14 x 16 inch trays with about 6 inches deep.Fill the trays with mushroom compost materials and inoculate with spawn. Button mushroom appear within three-four weeks.

Harvest them when the caps open and stalk can be cut with a sharp knife from stem. Avoid pulling mushroom which damages the surrounding one still developing. Harvesting every day results in a continuous crop for about six months.

Therefore growing of vegetables in the kitchen garden following above practices will ensure nutritional security in the urban people of our country.

References

Chadha, M.L. (2013). Urban Home garden-Planning, design and management. In: Urban Home Gardening. All India Kitchen Garden Association, New Delhi, p. 4-11.

Evans, C. (2010). Kitchen Garden In: The Farmers' Handbook, "Near The House. p. 1-19.

Gabelman, W.H. and Peters, S. 1979. Genetical and plant breeding possibilities for improving the quality of vegetables.Acta Hort., 93: 243-270.

Kalia, P. (2012). Designing futuristic vegetable varieties for multipurpose. In: Winter School compendium on Breeding for higher productivity and Industry suitable food colourants and bioactive health compounds in vegetable crops: conventional and Hi-Tech cutting edge approaches (Eds.PKalia&T.K.Behera). p 1-118.

McAleese JD and Rankin LL (2007) Garden-based nutritional education affects fruit and vegetable consumption in sixth-grade adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107: 662-665.


Authors:

Partha Saha1, Namita Das Saha2 and BS Tomar1

1Division of Vegetable Science, 2CESCRA

ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012

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