The growth of trade industries in the 21st century is commendable. In this situation, "rabbit farming" and "rabbit cum fish farming" is a good and low cost business for the common man. Rabbit cum fish farming gives you more profits in less cost.
Integrated Fish Farming:
Any animal husbandry can be integrated with fisheries so that more production can be achieved at less cost. Generally, poultry, duck and pig farming are quite popular along with fisheries. But the manure produced from rabbit-cum-fishery and other animal husbandry etc. can be directly used in fish farming, so that there is no need to provide manure and supplementary food from outside in the pond.
Fish and paddy can be cultivated in fish-cum-agriculture, fruits, vegetables and flowers can also be cultivated in the land around the pond. Its rabbit can be used in composting so that there is no need to provide compost from outside and supplementary food to rabbit.
Integrated rabbit-fish farming is based on the principle that fertilized water develops a marked quantity of phytoplankton and zooplankton – the natural diet of most fish species produced in aquaculture.
Fish-cum-rabbit farming benefits both. The rabbit can be reared on the ground and above the pond. The number of rabbits varies per hectare for water. According to researches conducted in India, 400 - 500 rabbits are suitable for one hectare pond of fish. This number depends on the productivity of the pond. A rabbit releases 60 - 70 kg (140 - 150 grams per day) of excreta every year which is converted into suitable manure in fish farming.
Rabbit rearing can be done in the bed near the pond. In this method, the habitat of the rabbit is built near the pond so that with the cleaning of his house the excreta goes directly into the pond. Rabbit housing can also be built above the pond so that excreta falls directly into the water. Raising rabbits is more beneficial for the baby in fish-cum-rabbit rearing.
Approximate N, P, K values of animal manure:-
|Animal||Nitrogen (%)||Phosphoric acid (%)||Potash (%)|
Source: Lebas et al. (1996)
There are two species of rabbit for the baby rabbit production-
European wild rabbit: It is exotic type rabbit. It gives 80 children annually.
American cotton tail rabbit: It produces 85 to 90 babies per year.
One female rabbit produces about 8 babies in 45 days, then 400 female rabbits will give 3200 babies in 45 days, 3200 rabbits will be ready after 3 to 5 months (per half to 5 kg) i.e. 9600 kilogram rabbits.
Like other animals, the rabbit eats cabbage, carrots and dried leaves and hay. An adult rabbit (male and female) eats only 140 grams to 200 grams of hay or vegetable a day. The rabbit consumes size in an average scale despite producing more and more. A clean and healthy rabbit keeps on making sound. If you do business in the modern way, then there will not be any kind of ravages.
In fish-cum-rabbit rearing, the habitat of the rabbit should be built on or near the pond so that its excreta can reach directly into the pond. Rabbits are kept in the house during the night. In such a pond, fish seed should be stored as fingerlings.
The rabbit needs up to 160 grams of food at night. 400 - 500 rabbits per hectare are sufficient for the water field so the fish do not require supplementary feed. Rabbits give children from 3 to 6 years hence there is no need to remove all the rabbits every year but only 40 - 50 percent of the total rabbit should be removed every two years, so that every rabbit is changed every two years and always in farming Rabbits are available. The rabbit should be taken care of by a veterinarian at all times, vaccines should be provided from time to time, there should not be any pollution in the surroundings, so that the rabbit does not have any kind of disease.
Environmental requirements in rabbit husbandry:
Environmental factors play a major role in rabbit reproduction. Mortality due to heat stress accounted for 73% rabbit mortality, but, under a cooling regime, mortality stood at 6%, taking into account losses due to conception rate, litter weight and pre-weaning mortality. Rabbits should be provided with cool drinking water as a way of alleviating heat stress.
The most important parameters influencing rabbits’ physiological stress are temperature, humidity and ventilation. In addition, rabbit nutrition as well as housing-hygiene and odour have optimal values which should be adhered to. These have obvious implications for farmer training.
21 º c (10-20º c)
Ventilation and daylight length
2-3 m2 /kg/hrs. (m2 of air and kg of live weight )
Benefits of fish-cum-rabbit farming:
- The waste material and excreta released by rabbit are fully utilized in fish farming.
- Waste material and excreta released by rabbit makes powerful organic fish food and manure.
- Rabbit eats green grass, other vegetables or dry grass etc. It is unsuitable for humans
- The rabbit is called a biological refrigerator.
- It is more disease resistant than chicken and duck.
- 1 female rabbit produces about 8 babies in 45 days, then 400 female rabbits will give 3200 babies in 45 days, 3200 rabbits will be ready after 3 to 5 months (9600 forts rabbits per two and a half kg). The cost per kg is Rs. 100 / - i.e. 3200 x 80 - 2, 56, 000.
- In view of the market price of the fish and the compatibility of the weather, etc. the big fish should be sold first and the other fish should be removed and sold later. 6000 kg per year per hectare. The cost per kg is Rs. 50 / - i.e. 6000 X 50 = 3, 00, 000.
Nitesh Kumar Yadav
Aquaculture Research Scholar, College of Fisheries
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur (Raj)