राजस्थान मे सतत आय रोजगार के लिये एकिक्रत कृषि प्रणाली

Present context of changing climate, crop production is the most vulnerable enterprise in agriculture to natural disasters. Integration of various agricultural enterprises viz.. crop production, animal husbandry Fishery, forestry etc. have great potentials in the agricultural economy.

These enterprises not only supplement the income of the farmers but also help in increasing the family labor employment. A major section of farming community in the country is in the category of small and marginal farmers with limited resources. These resource poor farmers are most affected by the changing climatic conditions like delayed, low and erratic rainfall.

India is a hot spot of variability in farming situation and system. While, the traditional farming systems in the country integrate various components of animal husbandry, horticulture, forestry and fishery to a varied degree in addition to crop production, scientific validation of component enterprises for compatibility is necessary before integrating them in existing farming system. Integrated Farming Systems deal with following changes in farming situation.

  1. The integrated farming system approach introduces a change in the farming techniques for maximum
  2. Production in the cropping pattern and takes care of optimal utilization of resources.
  3. farm wastes are better recycled for productive purposes in the integrated system.
  4. A judicious mix of agricultural of enterprises like dairy, poultry, piggery, fishery, sericulture etc. suited to the given agro climatic conditions and socioeconomic status of the farmers would bring prosperity in the farming sector.

Advantages of integrated farming system (IFS)

  1. Higher food production to equate the demand of the exploding population of our nation.
  2. Increased farm income  through proper residue recycling and allied components.
  3. Sustainable soil fertility and productivity through organic Waste recycling.
  4. Integration of allied activities will result in the availability of nutritious food enriched with protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals and Vitamins.
  5. Integrated farming will help in environmental protection through effective recycling of waste from animal activities like piggery, poultry, duck and pigeon rearing.
  6. Reduced production cost of components through input recycling from the byproducts of allied enterprises.
  7. Regular stable income through the products like egg, milk, mushroom, vegetables, honey and silkworm cocoons from the linked activities in integrated farming.
  8. Inclusion of biogas & agro-forestry in integrated farming system will solve the prognosticated energy crisis.
  9. Cultivation of fodder crops as intercropping and as border cropping will result in the availability of adequate nutritious fodder for animal components like milch cattle goat/ sheep, pig and rabbit.
  10. Firewood and construction wood requirements could be meet from the agro-forestry system without affecting the natural forest.
  11. Avoidance of soil loss through erosion by agro-forestry and proper cultivation of each part of land by integrated farming.
  12. Generation of regular employment for the family members of small and marginal farmers.

Components of IFS

Crops, livestock, birds and trees are the major components of any Integrated Farming System (IFS). Crops may have subsystem like mono crop, mixed/intercrop, multi-tier crops of cereals, legumes (pulses), oilseeds, forage etc. livestock components may be milch cow goat sheep, poultry and bees. These components may include timber, fuel, fodder and fruit trees.

IFS in rainfed areas.

The following factors have to be considered while selecting Integrated Farming System in Rain fed Areas. Soil type’s rainfall and its distribution and length of growing season are the major factors that decide the selection of suitable annual crops, trees and livestock components. The needs and resource base of the farmers like holding size, availability of natural forest and irrigation facilities also decides the selection of IFS components in any farm.

Important enterprises of Integrated Farming System including crops, pulses, oilseeds, forage crops, fibre crops, vegetables, fruit crops, spices, flower crops, medicinal crops, livestock, birds and fishes suitable for geographical region of Rajasthan are given in Table—l.

Agronomic approaches for increasing overall productivity using IFS

The various agronomic approaches for increasing the overall productivity and sustainability of IFS are as follows: -

  1. Adoption of improved cropping system according to the rainfall and soil moisture availability.
  2. Selection of suitable grain crop species, tree species that supply pods/leaves for a longer period or throughout the year.
  3. The surplus fodder leaves, crop residues etc. during the rainy season should be preserved as silage/hay for lean season (summer).

Major IFS modles developed in RAJASTHAN

A major section of Farm families of Rajasthan falls in the category of small and marginal farmers. Farmers of this category are most affected people by natural calamity like drought.

Rain fed agriculture is common practice in this region, predominantly pearl millet - fallow mono culture system. Only around 35 percent area is irrigated and is under double more crops in a year.

Dependency mainly on crop production might have led to a high degree of uncertainty in income and employment to the farmers. In this context, it is imperative to evolve suitable strategy for augmenting the income of a farm with integration of various agricultural enterprises viz., Crop production, animal husbandry, fishery, forestry etc. have great potential in the agricultural economy with minimum risk to farming community.

These enterprises not only supplement the income of the farmers but also help in increasing the family labor employment. The integrated farming system approach introduces a change in the farming techniques for maximum production in the cropping pattern and takes care of optimal utilization of resources.

There are four categories of farmers noticed in Rajasthan state viz., marginal farmers (less than 1.0 ha holding size), small (1.0-2.0 ha holding size), medium farmers (2.0—4.0 ha holding size) and big farmers (4.0-10.0 ha holding size).

Important Integrated Farming Systems defined for Rajasthan in relation to holding size, land situation and irrigation facilities are described as under.

MARGINAL & SMALL FARMERS, MEDIUM LAND SITUATION AND PARTIALLY IRRIGATED CONDITIONS

Crops +Vegetable +Poultry + Piggery .

MARGINAL & SMALL FARMERS, LOW LAND SITUATION AND IRRIGATED CONDITIONS

Crops + Fishery + Poultry/Duck   keeping + Piggery

Paddy +Fishery + Duck keeping

MEDIUM FARMERS AND BIG FARMERS, MEDIUM LAND SITUATION

Crops +Dairy Cattle +Fodder crops/Vegetables

Crops +Dairy Cattle + Fruit crops +Fodder crops/Vegetables

MEDIUM FARMERS AND BIG FARMERS, LOW LAND SITUATION

Crops +Poultry + Fishery +Piggery

UPLAND, RAIN FED AND FOREST COVER AREAS

Crops + Goat keeping + Apiary + Lac cultivation / Sericulture

Crops + dry land fruit crops + Rainy season vegetables + Fodder trees

Residue recycling concept in integrated farming system

Availability of farm residue determines overall productivity of Integrated Farming System. Feed management in animal component of IFS. Like Poultry, Piggery, Goat keeping and Dairy Cattle is crucial for total expenditure likely to occur in Farming system. crop residues may used for making compost vermin compost also animal  waste used for making FYM ,compost and vermin compost.etc.

Geographical region Type of soil Types of farming Enterprises Crop component Animal component Districts
North west arid region         Sandy to sandy loam         Dryland to irrigated farming          Cereals Bajra,sorghum, small millet Sheep,goat, dairy cattle camel         Jaisalmer jodhpur barmer Bikaner hanuman gragh nagaur jalore sri ganga nagar and some part of shakawati region and pali districts        
Pulses Chickpea, greengram .blackgram, cowpea,
Oilseeds Ground nut
Commercial crop Cotton
Vegetable crop Kharif vegetables like clusterbean, tomato cucurbits,radish, chillies
Fruit crop Ber,Aonla, Pomegranate datepalm and citrus species 
Spices Cumin, kasuri fenugreek
Fodder crops  fodder bajra, Napier, fodder ragi (finger millet), fodder cowpea fodder sorghum stylo, siratro,  marvel 
Medicinal and aromatic crops Aloe vera, aspergus,
Middle Aravali hilly region         Sandy loam to clay soils         Rainfed to irrigated farming         Cereals maize sorghum, bajra, wheat, Goat, dairy cattle, sheep         Udaipur chhitorgargh; rajsamand , dugarpur, pratapgargh bhilwara, sikar jhunjhunu ajmer sirohi alwar and some part of pali and jaipur districts       
Pulses Greengram, blackgram, cowpea, chickpea
Oilseeds Mustard taramira seasame
Commercial crop Minute area covered by cotton and castor
Vegetable crop Tomato,  brinjal, chillies, clusterbean
Fruit crop Ber, mango, papaya, custard apple
Fodder crops Fodder sorghum ,berseem, Lucerne,
Spices Ginger, turmeric, coocasia
Medicinal crops Opium kalmegh, kalihari,  , ashgandha, safed musli,alovera , asparagus  
Eastern plain region        Lomy to Clay soil        Rainfed to Irrigated        Cereals Wheat ,barley, bajra Cattle buffalo, poultry , goat        Jaipur,bharatpur, dausa, dholpur, swaimadhopur, karoli tonk alwar and some part of ajmer and baswara ditricts       
Pulses Chickpea Lentil, greengram, cowpea
Oilseeds Mustard, taramira, groundnut
Commercial crop Cotton , sugarcane
Vegetable crop Tomato , brinjal,okra, potato ,onion
Spices Fenugreek
Fruit crop Guava.ber, Orange, mango, ,papaya
Fodder crops Berseem, Alfalfa, Sorghum
South eastern plateau region             Clay soil                  Irrigated farming                  Cereals Rice, maize, wheat Cattle, fishery, piggery, buffalo, apiculture         Kota,bundi jhalawar, baran baswara and some part of chittorgargh and bhilwara districts        
Pulses Chickpea, lentil
Oilseeds Soybean, mustard
Commercial crop Sugarcane, tobacco, opium
Vegetable crop Tomato, chilli, potato
Spices Garlic, coriander
Fruit crop Citrus spices, banana, sapota,strawberry
Fodder crops Berseem
Medicinal crops Ashgandha, ,alovera, asparagus

 Socio-economic aspects of  IFS in RAJASTHAN

Many times selection of enterprises in IFS is regulated by social boundaries. For example, piggery is practiced by particular caste of society with marginal land holding including Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribe

Strong campaign is need to motivate other section of society with same land holding and economic status. goat keeping is evenly practiced by Backward and scheduled caste. Farmers of general category show reluctance to these enterprises. Farmers of higher land holding and economic status can easily be motivated to adopt Poultry and dairy fanning.

Conclusion

Convergence of compatible farm enterprises which constitutes Integrated Farming System is Demand of the time for increasing and sustaining the productivity and generating employment in agriculture Furthermore, integrated Farming System provides safety to farmers from total loss due to failure of crops in changing climate.              


Authors

*TURFAN KHAN, **GANGARAM MALI, *** PRIYANKA KUMAWAT, ****CHETAN KUMAR SAINI

 *FARM MANAGER, KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA GUDAMALANI {BARMER-II}-344031                

 **PROGRAMME ASSISTANT, KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA GUDAMALANI   {BARMER-II}-344031                           

  ***Ph.D   SCHOLAR SWAMI KESHWANAND RAJASTHAN AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY BIKANER-334006

  ****DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS JNKVV JABALPUR-482004

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