भारत मे गेंहू उगाने की उन्‍नत प्रौद्योगिकी  

wheat crop

Its scientific name is triticum aestivum and first originated at Middle East. Wheat grains are used to make flour, which is transformed into dough and then breads. Wheat is a staple food in India. It contains manganese, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium in very large quantities. Wheat also rich in zinc, copper, iron and potassium. Calcium is present but in small amounts. They contain vitamin b. Vitamin E and vitamin K are also present but in small amounts. Wheat has a calorific value of 339.0 per 100 gm. Being a grain, it is very appropriate in calories and hence, filling as a food. Wheat cultivation is most important agricultural activity in India

Soil type for Wheat cultivation

Wheat can be grown sandy loam to clay soil but best grown on loamy soil.

Land preparation

Following should be done to prepare the field-          

1- cultivate the fallow land 4-5 times before sowing because of following reasons-

  1.      to break tke clod of soil
  2.      to create the better airation between the soil.
  3.      to control the weeds, insects and soil born diseases.

2- use land leveler if required

3- use planker to preserve moisture

Sowing Time of wheat in India

Most appropriate time of sowing is when the temperature drops to 20-22 0c i.e 2nd fortnight of november is optimum time of sowing. In case of categorisation of sowing time in early/mid/late, following times are suitable-

Early sowing-      25 oct – 10 nov

Mid sowing-      10 nov – 30 nov

Late sowing -     upto 15 december

Spacing in wheat crop

Row to row spacing       -       18-23 cm        

Sowing depth               -           4-5 cm

Varieties of wheat



Crop duration (Days)

Yield (q/ha)


(timely sowing)

1. Lok-1

2. WH 147






(late sowing)

1. GW 173




1. C 306

2. Sujata





Seed rate & seed treatment in wheat cultivation

Quality seed i.e certified or graded seed should be sown to ensure maximum production per unit area. Optimum seed rate of wheat is 100-120 kg/ha in broadcasting and its just half i.e 50 kg/ha in line sowing. It also depends on sowing time as mentioned below

  • Early sowing-      50 kg/ha
  • Mid sowing-      60 kg/ha
  • Late sowing -     70 kg/ha.

Seed treatment

 Seed are dressed with fungicide @ 2 gm/ kg of seed

Water management in wheat crop

Irrigation is the most important practice in growing crop to take maximum yield from that crop and the most critical stage of irrigations are as fallows

  • Crown root initiation ( 21 days after sowing)
  • Late tillering ( 42 days after sowing).
  • Late joining ( 60 days after sowing)
  • Flowering ( 80 days after sowing)
  • Milk stage ( 95 days after sowing) and
  • Dough ripe ( 115 days after sowing)

Fertilizer  Management in wheat crop

Following points should be kept in mind during applying fertilisers to crops-

  • Use balanced dose of fertilizer 
  • Analyze the status of soil fertility & salts
  • The ratio of n : p should be 1.5:1
  • Apply irrigation water immediately after the use of urea fertilizer 
  • Use gypsum in salt affected soils before monsoon
  • Use all nitrogen fertilizer upto 31st january, late usage of nitrogen will cause logging.
  • Use all phosphatic & potash fertilizer at sowing if not applied then use at 1st irrigation

Recommended fertilizer doses. (kg)



N (kg/ha)

P (kg/ha)

K (kg/ha)

A- For irrigated area


indigenous var.





dwarf var. (timely sowing)





dwarf var.(late sowing)




B- For Rainfed area


indigenous var.





dwarf var. (timely sowing)




Recommended dose of phosphrus, potassium and 1/3 dose of nitrogen is given as basal dose i.e at the time of sowing and remaining dose of nitrogen i.e 2/3 of nitrogen is given as top dressing or at CRI stage (21 DAS). 15-20 kg/ha zinc may be given at the seeding time (in case of defficiency). In rainfed conditions, all the fertilisers should be applied at the time sowing as basal.

Weed management

Timely weeding and interculture are essentia because weeds cause a loss of  14 – 42 % in yield. Phalaris minor is the major weed of wheat in rice wheat system. Sometimes its population is so high (2000-3000 plants / m2) that farmers are forced to harvest the wheat crop as fodder. Other weeds associated with wheat crop are anagallis arvensis (krishananeel), argemone mexicana (satyanashi), avena fatua (jangli jai), chenopodium album (bathu) etc. Weeds are categorised in two groups. 1st is Broad Leave Weeds and 2nd is Narrow Leave Weeds.

Weed control measures

Weed control measures are as follows

  • Use of clean/weed free seed 
  • Hand pulling (if manual labor available) 
  • Mechanical methods i.e the removal of weeds by various tools & implements including hand weeding   & pulling or by using hoeing, bar harrow etc 
  • Chemical control- always spray the herbicides when there is sufficient moisture in the soil and ensure complete coverage of the field.
  • For control of Broad Leave Weeds spray 2,4-D at @ 0.5 kg a.i/ha in 750 lit of water after 25-30 DAS.
  • For control of Phalaris minor or wild oats make a pre-emergence application of Pendamethaline (Stomp) @ 1 kg /ha in 750 lit of water or spray Isoproturon @ 1 kg /ha in 750 lit of water after 35 DAS.

Crop Rotation

Wheat is mainly grown in rotation with Rice, Sugarcane, Arhar (pigeon pea), Sorghum, Cotton, Pearl millet, Cluster bean, and groundnut

Integrated plant protection measures for wheat

A- Cultural practices:

  • Deep summer ploughing to destroy weeds, diseased spores and resting stages of pests.
  • Rotation of crop with non-host crops
  • Use of resistance varieties.
  • Timely sowing help in minimizing the pest population.
  • Regular and proper irrigation with proper drainage of water management practices
  • Timely weeding with recommended spacin and balance use of fretiliser also minimizing the attack of pest and diseases.
  • Grow few lines of sarson crops around the wheat field for the control of aphids on wheat

B. Mechanical practices:

  • Remove infected plants.
  • Use pheromone traps
  • Use bird scarer for the control of birds.

C. Biological control practices:

  • Conserve bio-control agent like trichogramma, spiders and wasps etc.
  • Seed treatment with trichoderma viridae @ 4 gm/kg seed against soil borne diseases.
  • Release of trichogramma chilonis @ 1, 00,000/ha/week synchronizing with appearance of eggs

D. Botanical pesticides:     

  • Use of neem cake @ 200 kg/ha for control of nematodes.

E. Chemical control measures:

1- Important diseases and their controls are as below-

Name of diseases

Causal organism




Black rust

Puccinia graminis tritici

Raised pustules with yellow, orange or black spores

Mancozeb @ 2 kg/ha in 800 liter of water.


Brown rust

Puccinia recondita tritici


Yellow rust

Puccinia striiformis tritici


Loose smut

Ustilago segatum

Entire spike black, transformed into a powdery mass

Seed treated with Vitavax @2.5 g /kg of seed

Karnal bunt

Tilletia indica

A mass of black spores replaces a portion of the endosperm, and the pericarp may be intact or ruptured. Diseased kernels give off a fetid or fishy odor when crushed.

Seed treated with Bavistin or Thiram @2.5 g /kg of seed 


2- Important insect-pest and their controls are as below- Insect-pest Treatments
1 Aphid
  1. Foliar spray of Imidacloprid 200SL @20g a.i./ha

  2. Spraying a pyrethroid insecticide

  3. Spray 200-250gm ai/ha of dimethoate

2 Grasshopper
  1.   Apply malathion@4-5kg/ha
3 Armyworm
  1. Apply 50% WP Carbaryl @ 750-1000 gm ai/ha

  2. Spraying a pyrethroid insecticide

4 Termites
  1. Spray chloropyriphos 20% EC @ 4 lit./ha in standing crop.

  2. Seed treatment with Chloropyriphos @ 4 ml/kg of seed.

Harvesting, Thressing and Processing of wheat

Soon after maturity, the seed crop should be harvested to avoid shattering and losses due to uncertain weather. Most suitable stage is grain moisture of 20-25%. Mechanical harvesting is common practice i.e by sickle, combine or reaper and later the threshing with stationary thresher. Threshing should be done at 16 to 19 % moisture content to reduce mechanical damage. During processing, wheat seeds should be properly dried and cleaned mechanically.

Storage  and Storage pest management

In general, stored wheat seed should be kept at moisture levels below 12% and relative humidity should not exceed 50-60%. The cleaned, bagged seed should be stored in a dry, insect proof warehouse. Immature, damaged or mechanically injured seeds cannot survive long storage periods. Effective rodent control (traps and position) is essential. A complete program of exclusion, sanitation and control should be used. Insects should be controlled by a combination of insecticides and fumigants.

Storage pest management in wheat crop

Following should be done-

  • Sanitation and disinfestation of stores.
  • Temperature- below 10 0C kills insects.
  • Moisture- stored grain moisture should be 10%
  • Oxygen- decrease in oxygen and increase in CO2 is lethal to insect.
  • Fumigation- aluminium Phosphide @ 2 tablet of 3g /ton of seed.



Himachal Motghare

O/o Dy.Director of Agriculture, Raipur

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